Metal absorbs and then emits X-Rays. The emission spectrum is analyzed for characteristic (or fluorescent) X-Ray energy of the constituent elements.
Ferrite is a crystal structure type that gives iron its magnetic properties. The ferrite test establishes the predominance of this structure in a metal.
A small indentation is made in material. Comparing the size of this with a similar deformation in a known hardness standard yields a hardness value for the material under test.
Ultrasonics uses high Frequency sound waves in order to detect internal and external defects in welding, materials, and components.
Automated Ultrasonics (AUT) or Advanced Ultrasonics utilizes the same principles as conventional ultrasonics with the added benefit of a permanent record of inspection.